Melanoma Stages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5: Prognoses, Symptoms, Treatments

Like other cancerous diseases, melanoma stages exist to help give an estimation on the prognosis of the disease. High variability with the outcome and prognosis of cancer throughout the progress of the invasion makes it crucial to have this system in place. Think this way. You visit your physician and find out you have melanoma on your arm.

Why are there melanoma stages

There is a lot to say whether or not this is at a point in time where it can be treated by simply removing the freckle and never hearing of it again. Then again, if it spread to a more important organ in the body, there might not be a chance in saving yourself. How do you distinguish between one and the other?

By assigning stages using as objective measures a possibly by gathering all available information and using interdisciplinary results to offer a cumulative assessment that can be used for explaining the situation to patients and deciding different treatment options that may be effective during this time.

What are the components of staging

The TNM system is the staging criterium usually implemented. It refers to three separate things that are considered that match the letters. Each letter receives a score. T stands for the size of the initial tumor and whether or now the infection has spread beyond the initial mass. If the location of cancerous cells remains in the primary location of initiation, then staging is lower. It’s raised when the lump is enlarged and/ or it’s invaded neighboring tissues. It’s rated as Tx, Tis, T0, T1, T2, T3, or T4.

N describes whether the closest lymph nodes were infected. They act as filters for the body and can become swollen in the presence of cancer. It’s rated as Nx, N0, N1, N2, or N3.

Finally, M describes metastasis, whether cancer has traveled to other regions of the body. In the beginning it should be rather contained to the initial site of infection, however, it becomes dangerous when it spreads. It can spread to other nonvital organs like the intestines or esophagus. Vital organs such as the heart, brain, or liver often lead to a terminal conclusion. Its rating is M0 or M1.

This system was developed by Pierre Denoix between 1943 and 1952. Other parameters considered are the grade of cancer cells, the elevation of serum (secreted by tumors), completeness of operation, and modifier for the certainty of the information gathered.

Who is involved in the process

Staging is not assigned by a single person. Unfortunately, it is not a black and white image of where everything is. It’s the result of effort from a group of highly trained individuals that bring their knowledge and expertise together to evaluate all perspectives of the illness. There are two ways cancer is staged. It can be clinical or pathologic. The former is concluded using all information obtained before surgery takes place.

This includes the physical examination where you feel lumps and note discolor, blood tests (complete blood count (CBC), blood protein testing (with electrophoresis which detects immunoglobulins), tumor marker tests (such as prostate specific antigen (PSA), 125 (CA 125), calcitonin, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human chronic gonadotropin (HCG)), and circulating tumor tests), radiologic techniques (X Rays, radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (like positron emission tomographies), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), biopsies, and endoscopies. The later component is when a pathologist exams the contents of the mass under the microscopic. The time of which these readings are carried out varies between the case and you should listen to what your oncologist recommends as it is thoroughly researched.

Stage 1 melanoma

Beyond the initial 0 stage where it is completely trapped in the surface of the skin and has yet to spread (in situ), stage 1 melanoma is considered a localized tumor.

It’s up to 2mm thick and has not spread to lymphatically or to other regions. Treatments are simpler and you have successfully captured it in the early stage.

Stage 2 melanoma

When ulceration and tumor thickness is enhanced, this is where stage 2 melanoma begins. It hasn’t spread to a nearby node yet and no indication of other affected regions is apparent. Images obtained through noninvasive techniques fail to show anything else needed aside from sectioning or removal of infected tissues.

Stage 3 melanoma

One of the lymph regions are affected, a stage 3 melanoma diagnosis is necessary. There are no present signs it’s traveled beyond to other regions. There is reason to believe it is beginning to dig a little deeper beyond the epidermis into the dermis. Ulcerations are present and more invasive techniques may be needed.

Stage 4 melanoma

The final step is stage 4 melanoma. It’s reserved for those final areas where metastases are happening and the lungs, bone, or abdominal organs are infected. This causes other physiological effects that are more serious than in earlier stages. Distant lymph nodes are reacting to the presence of cancer cells and pictures show that you are in your final moments. At this point, the outlook is bleak and oncologists may recommend to enjoy your final moments on earth and not endure the harsh treatments.

 

 

Article References:

  1. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/melanoma
  2. https://www.webmd.com/cancer/cancer-stages#1
  3. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/diagnosis-staging/staging
  4. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/in-depth/cancer-diagnosis/art-20046459
  5. https://www.aimatmelanoma.org/stages-of-melanoma/

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